Saturday, September 8, 2012

Project Management

The term Project Management (PM) refers to the planning, controlling and monitoring of projects .

Many concepts and practices in project management are now well established and standardized . As part of most university programs in engineering, economics and computer science field Basic knowledge of project management are taught. Worldwide, there are some organizations which are dedicated to the field of project management. The three best known are:

  • the American Project Management Institute (PMI) with the PMP certification
  • the UK Office of Government Commerce (OGC) with the Prince2 certification
  • the International Project Management Association (IPMA), the IPMA certification

Its subsidiaries in the countries, Germany for example, the GPM offer, (including) certifications on different levels, details of which are available in the articles related to the associations.
Their PM processes are fundamentally independent of industry and project content, however, based on these methods, often individual process models derived, in which specific features of the project product (vs. for example software. Bridge) or the type of project (eg, software development, maintenance, process changes in companies), often practices in each company to be considered.

Definitions Project Management

Project management is defined according to sources textually different in content but a strong consensus:

  • DIN standard ( DIN 69901 -5:2009-01): " set of management tasks, organization, techniques and agents for the initiation, definition, planning, management and completion of projects . "
  • Project Management Institute (PMI): “Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements”(Projektmanagement ist die Anwendung von Wissen, Können, Werkzeugen und Techniken auf Projektaktivitäten, um Projektanforderungen zu erfüllen.).
  • British Office of Government Commerce (OGC): " Project management is the planning, delegation, monitoring and control of all aspects of a project. This includes the motivation of the participants to achieve the project objectives, but within the expected performance targets for time, cost, quality, scope, benefits and risks . "
  • Society for computer science : " The project coordinating lead, manage and control . "
  • ICB : These include: " leadership of the project participants to safely achieve the project objectives . "ICB understands the methodology of project management as a guiding principle, even in the so-called Management by Projects .
  • Etymology : proiectum (Latin): the forward Thrown and manum agere (Latin): lead by the hand


Stakeholder expectations

The Project Manager is responsible for the expectations of the stakeholders to meet the project as much as possible. The expectations for the collection of the most widely used method is the project environment analysis . As one stakeholder refers to any individual or organization whose interests are affected by the course or result of the project.

The project manager moves between the sizes

  • Time: Duration and dates
  • Costs
  • Content, scope and quality of the project and its results

These three factors are seen by stakeholders often different and possibly contradictory. To ensure project success, the project manager must therefore first the interests of the stakeholders transparently make and then work with them to create a project plan. Ultimately, with the principal priority of these variables is set, then the project management set up. The project reporting describes the project (or the individual result types of the project) then always in relation to these three variables.
If the organizational structure of an enterprise resource conflicts are expected to respond (for example, matrix organization ), sometimes a fourth control variable "staff" section. Although staff is a part of the costs otherwise ( personnel costs ), it can be critical to have certain people in the project. This should be explicitly described and all stakeholders to be transparent. Deviations in the project reporting more transparent.
The magic triangle also shows that a change to one of the control variables leads automatically to changes in one or two different sizes.


The management of the project lies with the project manager, who is often known as project manager. He is responsible to the client for the project, subject to reporting. Compared with the project team it is factual, but not authorized to issue instructions to disciplinary action.
For the project's successful implementation requires the project manager
  • Knowledge of project management,
  • general management knowledge,
  • product-specific knowledge,
  • Stamina and resilience,
  • an integrated and sustainable way of thinking,
  • interpersonal and communication skills.
Besides the methodological skills are social skills of a project manager for project success critical. Project management is always risk and opportunity management: In any project come to unplanned situations. A good project manager from the fact that he recognizes such situations early, with little friction again come to grips with and utilizes the alternate potentialities. Project Manager should have experience on an interpersonal level, the areas of communication and conflict management , team building and motivation include. incentive systems play a central role.
With no internal production capacity, the role of the project manager are also outsourced.
Depending on the size and complexity of the project can delegate tasks in project management, shared or in personal union to be modified:
  • One possibility is that the project be divided into sub-projects , which must be clearly demarcated. Each part of the project manager takes over the control of these sub-projects and reports to the Project Manager.
  • Another possibility is the division by function . For example, the schedule and the cost or the risk management and quality management in each case certain people with appropriate qualifications are assigned.

Choice of approach

Due to various structures and methods of project management (PM) (see also Section 4.3f , PM systems and project phases) for which there are partially own process models, the choice of procedure for carrying out a targeted project (including project management) for most:
  • Requirements of the organization or the contracting authority (Guidelines)
  • Size of the project (for example, number of person days)
  • Complexity of the project, which are categorized according to the technical and social complexity
  • Sector of the project, if a process model is used branchen-/produktspezifisches
  • other project type categorizations such as project development, project learning, maintenance project, ...
With the project implementation, a single, but several thousand people to be busy. Accordingly, the tools of project management ranging from simple to-do lists to complex organizations with established solely for that purpose companies and massive support from project management software . Therefore, one of the main tasks of project management before starting the project to determine which project management methods to be applied in this project, and exactly weighted. An application of all methods in a small project would lead to Overadministration, so the cost- benefit ratio ask the question.

The overall management of projects

Multi-Project Management

If multiple projects simultaneously controlled and coordinated, it is called multi-project management . Multi-project management, which is often encountered some large companies, makes high demands on the participants, because contexts, such as competing resources must be coordinated across multiple projects. A special case is sometimes also called "Enterprise Project Management" (EPM), making use of these projects throughout the company, and control across the organization.

Program Management

Delineate the multi-project management is the concept of program management . Under a program is meant in this case a bunch of related content projects. Program management is in contrast to multi-project management, however, limited in time, similar to a project. Multi-project management can be a form of enterprise resource management, however used indefinitely.

Large Project Management

Large project management program management is similar, the program management controls typically individual projects a subject area and the major project management coordinates the sub-projects of a major project.

Project Portfolio Management

The project portfolio management of a company to manage the projects. The portfolio management consolidated figures of all projects of a company, both current and planned. Thus it provides the enterprise management cross-project information to control the total portfolio of projects.

Software tools

Almost all areas of project management today by project management software support. It allows the project manager to specify the content plan for the project, so that all parties involved then there can query fill in their respective work tasks and progress respectively. They allow an evaluation of the current project status according to various criteria (eg as regards compliance deadline or budget), with the help of graphical representations (eg Gantt charts ). On predefined milestones or completion are reports generated.
While some parts of the project management specifically targeted systems can be used for many purposes, is often common software (such as word processing, spreadsheet ...) are used, in part, using templates. For communicationvirtually always be mail systems used in virtual project teams or to various stakeholders often conferencing systems and electronic meeting systems . enabling the execution of meetings and workshops over the Internet
Wikis are recognized for the knowledge management as well as tools used in project management.
The companies and organizations use PM tools in practice to a large extent different to. Partly also ERP software is used, which maps the entire company and simultaneously provides project management functions.

Success factors

To the frequent failures of projects (see chaos study ), there are always ongoing discussions about the success factors of projects. As a major factor in this project management is called.
Project management as a success factor:
Professional management is seen as a key criterion for success of projects. Specifically
  • the project boundary and the project objectives to define adequately
  • To develop project plans and to undergo periodic Controlling
  • Projects to structure a process-oriented
  • the project organization and culture to make each project.
  • to develop a specific project culture and
  • the relationship of the project to make the project context.
Project management contributes to ensure project success, this can not deliver alone, as there are other factors such as is the company's strategy, competitive environment, etc., affect the success of the project. Source: IPMA by Gareis and Patzak Rattay
Such prerequisites for successful PM , which can only be met outside of project management, such as:
  • Commitment of stakeholders: 'sponsor' for the project, acceptance of the project and its objectives
  • Adequate infrastructure project: organization, methods and tools are available
  • Competence of the people assigned to the project
Moreover exhausted 'projects run successfully' not in command of the PM methodology. Rather, the success is to a large extent also on the personal characteristics and skills ("soft factors") provides all stakeholders including the project manager.

Standards and norms

The norms and standards are project management methods and process models to be distinguished. While the former are certain sub-disciplines of project management (risks, requirements, scheduling ...) meant, trying to so-called process models the sequence of activities, ie, the processes set for the project and the PM as precisely as possible, is widely used, the V- model .
The tasks, methods, tools and project management levels are essentially well known and documented. The aim should be to establish a possible widespread, uniform terminology and basic concept and promote. This task imagine various standardization bodies and associations PM:
  • In particular, the U.S. is the Project Management Institute (PMI) mentioned that with his Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge has (PMBOK Guide) published the English-language reference work on project management. Many of the following information relating to the PMBOK Guide, as it moves through the highly structured presentation is to illustrate the characteristics of projects and project management.
  • For Germany in particular will find the standards DIN 69901 application.
  • Furthermore, 2012 is the ISO 21500 published on project management.
  • As an international guideline for quality management in projects with the ISO 10006:2003 was published.
For the practical application put companies / organizations in the form of PM manuals, guides firmly PM, etc. as the PM is to be applied in their projects. The benchmarks here refer generally to standards as they are called in this chapter, but here they are often company-or situation-specific (project type and size, etc.) (adapted reduced, simplified, personalized supplements, adapted to tools. ..).

International project management standards

  • IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB 3.0): PM-Standard des Projektmanagementverbandes International Project Management Association (IPMA); dezentral organisiert, in Deutschland durch die GPM
  • PMBOK Guide : originally American PM standard of Project Management Association Project Management Institute (PMI)
  • PRINCE2 : now widely used project management method in the UK
  • DIN 69901 : is currently very popular internationally and is heavily involved in the ISO 21500 one
  • ISO 21500 will be released until 2012. Currently it is available in CD status.

Project Management Systems

To the work and organization in a project management company to anchor, the appropriate boundary conditions and rules of the game are needed. It must holistic, efficient project management systems are established, which generally contain standards, measures and tools in the following areas:
The organizational implementation of project management in the respective company must be clarified. These include for example the definition of clear roles, skills and responsibilities (particularly the interaction lines - project), the creation of a central organization for project management (for example, Project Management Office, Project Competence Center), or the establishment of PM career paths and incentive systems.
In the area of methodology, standards, tools, methods, are policies and processes defined, which should come in projects to apply. The methodology is normally specified individually for each organization. In many cases, the methodology used is a project management manual documented.
Thus, project management can be applied successfully, executives, project managers and staff are properly prepared for their role and qualified. Seminars, training-on-the-job or project- coaching are common tools for qualification.
There have IT-based structures are created that efficient information and communication flow to ensure and support the project planning and control over the entire project. On the market there are a variety of project management tools and comprehensive PM solutions that provide various functionalities.
The currently applicable standard 69901:2009 defines project management systems as a "system of policies, organizational structures, processes and methods for planning, monitoring and control of projects." The now no longer valid standard DIN 69905 , however defined project management systems or as "organizationally distinguishable whole that is through the interaction of its members in a position to prepare projects and unwind."
Moreover, the organizational form of the sponsor influence on the projects. The best known forms of organization are:
  • Line organization (function-based organization)
  • Matrix organization (vision mixer)
  • Project-oriented Organization

Project phases

Project phases are temporal sections in the process model are defined for a project. The phases are the framework in which each individual activities with their work content (what?) And their results are determined. These activities are in project management (part of task management control) and controlled. Usually, the project phases end with defined milestones . Depending on the project type , project, product, industry, etc. phase models usually are individually  focused on the task at hand.
The outline of the project activities in phases in pure form an approach to the waterfall model , but it may alternatively be applied iteratively, such as revising to project results in certain situations again.
An example of a phase model in general (with a bullet in it incurred PM tasks) is:
  • Project Definition : The goal of the project is defined, opportunities and threats are analyzed and determined the essential contents. Cost, scope and time are roughly estimated, for large projects, can do so through a feasibility study are supported. At the end of this phase of the formal project charter .
  • Project Planning : In this phase, the team is organized, and there are task lists, schedules, schedules, capacity plans, communication plans, cost plans, quality plans and risk management set. In this play called milestones important.
  • Project implementation and monitoring : This phase includes, apart from the implementation itself, for project management control of the project's progress and response to disruptive events project. Knowledge of current or future deviations will result in changes to the plans and corrective actions.
  • Project completion : The results are presented and passed in documented form. In a review of the project is assessed retrospectively, and the experiences are often in a lessons-learned report noted. The project is released by the client.
  • May demolition project : The project is canceled, without the project objectives are achieved.
Similarly also briefly defined as the Deming PDCA cycle known a general 4-phase approach, which differs according to Plan, Do, Check and Act (meaning introduction). This general approach can be ' generic ', for all projects or for individual project segments (phases) are used.
A phase model for software development could have a finer phase structure and, for example, look like this. The objectives of project management are not defined as a phase of the project, but are assumed to be true globally increasing project role:
  • Analysis
  • Feasibility Study
  • Draft
  • Implementation
  • Test
  • Piloting
  • Rollout for the users
  • Completion

In the current project management literature strict phasing ("waterfall model") is questioned. In practice, phase curves overlap or be designed circular. Methods such as rapid prototyping or agile software development try to move forward now.
Also criticizes the fact that a universally valid approach phase of the diversity of projects will not meet. "One size does not fit all" Yet is also building the new DIN standard 69900 series on it. A PM task is, therefore, the procedure for a specific project, based on standard models to adapt appropriately, eg project phases together and not exclude necessary project activities.

Project management process groups

The project management processes abstracted from the project phases, then can the project management processes summarized in process groups.

Process Group initiation

In the process group initiation is the initiation process. He is the project start date, and then return to the start of each phase of the project through.

Important objectives of initiation are:
  1. Distribution of the necessary information is so effective from the start / work efficiently,
  2. Negligence in early project phases later lead to (expensive) problems, therefore the objectives and functioning of the appropriate stage clarified
  3. the information about the project to be replaced and adjusted by the stakeholders,
  4. the project or the next phase of the project in its entirety and contexts considered (not all the details).
  5. To all questions as soon as possible to a match of all those involved.
As in all process groups to repeat the process and interact with each other. The sequential representation is a simplification.
Especially during the initiation by clarifying and defining the project goals the way for the project's progress and success of the project will be provided. The quality of the project objectives / goals phase (transparency) and the support of the stakeholders (liability) decide on the project's success.

Process Group Planning

Planning all process steps for planning the project or in detailing the respective project phase are summarized. All the steps are based on the defined purpose of the project. If necessary. alternatives are evaluated and selected. The key project management processes in the process group planning are:
  1. Planning the content and scope
  2. Define the content and scope
  3. Definition of the operations
  4. Setting the operation sequences
  5. Application resource requirements planning
  6. Estimate task durations
  7. Cost estimate
  8. Risk management planning
  9. Developing the schedule
  10. Cost Planning
  11. Compilation of the project plan

For this there are still a number of auxiliary processes such as quality planning, supply planning, etc.

Process Group Execution

Under execution is defined as the coordination of staff and other resources and their allocation to the tasks in the project plan to ensure that the project goal is reached. These include processes such as work release package. Supports the execution of the support processes, such as quality assurance, information technology, team development or selection of suppliers, etc.

Process Group Monitoring

This process group is concerned with the continuous monitoring of the achievement of objectives in the project. Interestingly, the English would control processes in the PMBOK Guide German version better than "control" rather than translated as "control" (which would have seen literally of course have been wrong). In the process of group control , there are two main processes:
  1. Reporting system for the collection and distribution (Stakeholderorientierung!) project performance and
  2. integrated change control to coordinate the changes.
The main processes are supported by a variety of auxiliary processes, including processes for acceptance requirements and other result types, scheduling and cost control and risk monitoring.

Process group completion

The final processes to deal with
  1. Contract termination and
  2. the administrative end of the project.
The former must be taken to ensure that all contracts terminated properly paid, etc.. When it comes to the final administrative internal termination of the project in the company. These include the final report, Lessons Learned and workshops - to PMI very important - the filling of the "database of historical project data" to the acquired knowledge and future projects (and project managers) to make available.

Process groups and project phases

The main process groups recur repeatedly in all project phases - but to varying degrees.
  • The detailed planning for each phase is performed on each phase beginning.
  • For different phases of a new workforce planning is required because different skills are needed.
  • Each phase starts with a Phasenkickoff to inform all stakeholders about the tasks and goals of the next phase of the project.

The nine knowledge areas of project management


Project management has the following main areas of activity (according to Project Management Institute 'knowledge areas' referred to) cover:

  • Integration Management : Here is the integration of the project and ensure coordinated. Involved and affected (see graphic example " landscape project ") are included in accordance with the nature of their involvement. Compliance with project standards facilitating this.
  • Project Scope Management : The management of the project framework (including scope management , requirements management ) ensures that the project goals are achieved. It provides, however, not only for the result-oriented in terms of the original objectives, but has particular task to initiate necessary deviations from these objectives that are clearly in the course of the project, einzusteuern in the project as well as corresponding new plans.
  • Event Management : Aims to compliance with the time frame and should involve all the stakeholders audiences. The project plan serves primarily as a communication medium.
  • Cost Management : Aims to budget compliance. This is (for example, Project Accounting ) record the cost behavior. Where appropriate countermeasures should be implemented.
  • Quality Management : Project-Specific Quality Management includes the standardization of project processes, documentation of work and results, as well as a suitable management measures.
  • Personnel Management : Does the efficient allocation of resources for skills and capacities available to the project tasks, but also the development team.
  • Communication Management : Taking often up to 50% of the project work, and includes all those involved and affected, nor in the management of change ( change management ) into account.
  • Risk management : project specific risk management. Includes risk analysis, preventive measures and contingency plans. Especially in complex projects, this is important.
  • Procurement Management : Integration and collaboration with partners and suppliers.

Each activity / activities in project management are aligned to this content and relate it possibly several knowledge areas simultaneously .
Example: The task management handled content from the scheduling and personnel management.
The knowledge areas cover in principle the entire project , but with phase-specific priorities.
Example: Defining risks or dates in the planning phase, the running in monitoring the implementation.
Important Note: The fields of knowledge, although the wording is identical to the corresponding equivalents in general management, however, are the issues here geared for specific projects: Project management has the project-specific properties (uniqueness of the product creation, time restrictions, stakeholder orientation and iterative approach) specific management processes (see Project Management Process Groups ), which are different from the general management knowledge areas significantly.


Is "project planning it, since people carry larger projects jointly. Neither a military campaign, yet the construction of large buildings (temples, fortresses), for example, still a long sea voyage to discover the western passage to India to be imaginable without the responsible had planned these projects in detail. But this happened a long time informally, simply because of the experience and knowledge of those responsible, until the 20th Century should be collected these informal procedures are systematized and brought into the scientifically prepared form, under the project management is now operated. "
Henry Gantt developed the Gantt chart in 1910 (including Gantt chart called). Regardless had Karol Adamiecki a similar method with the name harmonogram and Harmonograf already developed the 1896th Gantts method was first used in a major construction project, the construction of the 1935 completed Hoover Dam , are used. The first documentation of the project management approach was probably in the context of the Manhattan Project made.
A further development of the project management was then for the race to space is required - especially for the Apollo program .

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